Negative Afterimage
and Other Visual Experiments

Stereogram Focus
Instructions, Experiments and Process

In most lives insight has been accidental.
We wait for it as primitive man awaited lightning for a fire.
But making mental connections is our most crucial learning tool,
the essence of human intelligence: to forge links;
to go beyond the given; to see patterns, relationship, context.

--Marilyn Ferguson, The Aquarian Conspiracy

STEREOGRAM FOCUS INSTRUCTIONS

Stereograms with 3-D images hidden in a field of dots remain unseen when viewed with binocular vision. Some individuals will have difficulty learning to see stereoscopically and others will pick up the technique immediately. Once mastered, the stereoscopic shift mode becomes easier with each successful attempt as the neurons and synapses adapt to the changes which then become habit on mental demand. The 3-D hidden images can be observed by two different and varied methods:

    1. PARALLEL FOCUS TECHNIQUE
    Place the stereogram directly in front of you without being angled. Relax, aim your eyes parallel and focus blankly straight ahead with an absolutely steady gaze at a stereogram picture. With a blank stare, the stereogram will be blurry when viewed 2-D with only your awareness. Suddenly, the eye's necessary shift to view the 3-D image mode occurs. You will know the technique was successful when you emit the inevitable "Eureka!" reaction when the depth image emerges.

    2. CROSS-EYED FOCUS TECHNIQUE
    Cross your eye's focus so the right and left eye's visual axis cross between you and the stereogram picture using an absolutely steady gaze. The stereogram will be blurry when observed 2-D with only your awareness. When the eyes necessary shift is mastered the "Oh Wow!" 3-D mode becomes apparent.

Mr. Q Stereogram

Cadence Books, Stereogram, Pg. 63.

STEREOGRAM PARALLEL FOCUS EXPERIMENTS

  • Observe the stereogram 2-D using normal binocular scanning converged focus. Then acquire either a parallel or cross-eyed focus shift to view the stereogram 3-D.

  • Once the 3-D image comes into focus, move the eyes in all directions with normal eyes scanning motion. Do the eyes scanning motion downshift the 3-D mode back to 2-D?

  • Observing the 3-D image, angle the external stereogram picture to different angles and degrees. Does the stereogram angle downshift the 3-D mode back to 2-D?

  • Notice the 2-D stereogram top and bottom rows has five vertical rows. Observe the parallel focus stereogram shift produces six rows.

  • Place a small adhesive white dot above the 2-D vertical left image. Parallel focus to trigger the 3-D effect. Observe two images with white dots. Close one eye then the other to determine which eye produces which dotted image. Place the white dot on all different vertical rows, close one eye then the other to determine which eye produces which image.

  • Heed that monocular vision down shifts the 3-D image back to 2-D, but you will have several seconds to see which dot image disappears.

  • Place a white dot on 2-D image row 1 and a red dot on 2-D image row 2. Close one eye then the other to determine which eye's signals are layered in the background or foreground. Move down the different rows to see which eyes dots are in the background or foreground.

  • Do the same white/red dot experiment but slightly tilt the stereogram. Which eye's image is layered in the back or on the top?

  • With the acquired stereogram parallel focus shift slowly place one finger in front of the stereogram. Observe two transparent fingers.

  • Line up a row of five white dots directly above the top sharks. Offset a row of red dots beside and lower than the white dots. Six vertical rows of dots will be observed. After closing one eye then the other to determine which dots belong to which eye you will find that: RE-RVF produces vertical rows 1, 2, & 4 with the red dots further back in the background and the white dots closer yet behind the shark. LE-RVF produces rows 3, 5, & 6 of dots now in front of the sharks with the white dot behind the red dot. This shows the different layered effect of the RVF and the LVF.

  • Create other experiments.

STEREOGRAM PARALLEL FOCUS PROCESS

2-D stereogram has five vertical rows. A parallel focus shifts the right and left eye angle visual fields to noncorresponding points resulting in six 3-D vertical rows. As experiments proved, vertical row 1 is the single RE-LVF image. Vertical rows 2, 3, 4 and 5 are double layered by both eyes visual field signals. Vertical row 6 is the single LE-RVF image.

A parallel focus on a single object and the stereogram parallel focus show the varied sizes and distances of the different visual fields. Therefore, due to the noncorresponding left and right visual fields and fovea paths the visual fields remain separated. Each visual field and fovea takes in the whole picture with its own angle views (each part of a hologram contains the whole).

Vertical and Horizontal Visual Field Layers

Viewing the stereogram with a parallel focus, the RE-RVF and LE-RVF travel to each eye's cornea and refract to the retinas left side. The RE-RVF signals cross the optic chiasm and join the LE-RVF signals in the left hemisphere. Maintaining separate paths the signals follow the left hemisphere's optic track, cross the corpus callosum into the right hemisphere, go up the right optic track where the RE-RVF signals cross the optic chiasm to the left eye. Both visual field signals arrive at each eye's right retina side, reverse refract and exit into each eye's left visual fields areas.

Likewise, only opposite, each eye's LVF reach each eye's cornea and refract to the retinas right side. The LE-LVF cross the optic chiasm and travel beside the RE-LVF path into the right hemisphere. The signals follow the right hemisphere's optic track, cross the corpus callosum into the left hemisphere, go up the left optic track where the LE-LVF signal cross over the optic chiasm to the right eye. Both visual field signals arrive at each eye's left retina side, reverse refract and exit into each eye's right visual field areas.

The left and right fovea visual refracted signals converge on each eye's fovea. The left eye fovea signals go to the left hemisphere, cross over the corpus callosum, follow the right optic tract to the right eye fovea, reverse refract, and exit the right eye. Likewise, the right eye fovea signals procede to the right hemisphere, cross over the corpus callosum, follow the left eye optic tract to the left eye fovea, reverse refract, and exit the left eye. Both fovea signals exit the eyes in the same multi-layered sequence with the visual field signals.

The visual field/fovea layers are only six layers. How does the stereogram's seventh horizontal row #4 come into play?

The opposite dual function of the fovea signals popped up in microscopic vision focus. All incoming positive visual signals converge at the cornea's center where the optic axis passes through the cornea's exact center and the visual axis passes through the lens exact center where there is no refraction. The optic axis makes an angle of about five degrees with the visual axis. The cornea and lens center function like a pin hole where photons squeeze through, become coherent on a diverging path to the fovea. The LVF signals stay on the left retina side and RVF signals stay on the right retina side due to no refraction. The now negative left eye fovea signals go to the left hemisphere and the right eye fovea signals go to the right hemisphere increasing to 35% in area. Both fovea signals cross over the corpus callosum following the visual/optic fovea paths into the opposite hemisphere and exit the opposite eye's reverse visual field areas. This visual/optic axis path makes up layer #4 which is the layer for the most acute visual acuity of object attention.

Stereogram Parallel Focus Visual Fields Refracted

Stereogram Parallel Focus Fovea Refracted

Stereogram Stereogram Parallel Focus Fovea Visual Axis Signals

STEREOGRAM PARALLEL FOCUS MISSING LINK CLUES

  • More evidence of visual field separation and layered effects surface.

  • Parallel focus shifts the six visual fields to noncorresponding points and each maintains their separate modes.

  • Parallel 3-D focus remains until the visual angle is changed to cause the downshift to 2-D.

  • An added fovea visual axis path variation is apparent.

  • Finger transparency still occurs with stereograms visual signals having no effect for solidity on different objects.

  • The left or right visual field layers can be reversed by changing the angle of the stereogram - an aspect of holography.

STEREOGRAM CROSS-EYED FOCUS PROCESS

A cross-eyed stereogram focus maintains five vertical 3-d columns and alters the quantity of visual field signals to each eye; therefore changing the signals in the RVF and LVFs. For example, the left eye receives a greater span of LE-LVF signals with a decreased span of LE-RVF signals. And the right eye receives more RE-RVF signals with a decreased span of RE-LVF signals. The visual field signal balances are opposite a parallel focus balance. The cross-eyed focus observed image has now reversed the background and the foreground. Thus, Mr. Q is now chasing the sharks!

In a cross-eyed focus, the RE-RVF travels to the cornea and refracts to the retina's left side. The RE-RVF signals cross the optic chiasm and join the LE-RVF signals in the left hemisphere. The RE-RVF and LE-RVF maintain separate paths and follow the left hemisphere's optic track, cross the corpus callosum into the right hemisphere, go up the right optic track where the RE-RVF signals cross the optic chiasm to the left eye. The visual field signals arrive at left eye's right retina side, reverse refract and exit LE-LVF area.

Likewise, only opposite, LE-LVF signals reach the cornea and refract to the retina's right side. The LE-LVF cross the optic chiasm and travel the optic path into the right hemisphere. The signals follow the right hemisphere optic track, cross the corpus callosum into the left hemisphere, go up the left optic track where the LE-LVF signals cross over the optic chiasm to the right eye's left retina side. The signals reverse refract and exit into RE-RVF areas.

The same visual field altering process applies to the cross-eyed refracted fovea and visual axis fovea signals.

Stereogram Cross-Eyed Refracted Focus

Stereogram Cross-Eyed Focus Refracted Fovea Signals

STEREOGRAM CROSS-EYED FOCUS MISSING LINK CLUES

1. A cross-eyed focus retain the 2-D five vertical rows which show that even though cross-eyed both eye's signals are at corresponding point but with different angles which still keeps the visual field layers separated.
2. A cross-eyed focus alters the quantity of visual signals, therefore, altering the dominant visual field layer changing the background and foreground.
3. A clue to recall is that when doing a parallel or cross-eyed focus on a single object the RVF image was observed as being smaller and further back and the LVF image was larger and closer.
4. Further awareness of the layered visual fields comes to mind.

STEREOGRAM PARALLEL FOCUS QUESTIONS & ANSWERS

What is a stereogram?
Stereogram 2-D binocular converged focus contains a 3-D image attained only by a parallel or cross-eyed focus on the wall paper type design.

How is a stereogram created?
A stereogram design is created by putting dots or images in slightly different positions and layers with the same design used in a wall paper affect. The design has to be a repetition of the initial design in order for some visual layers to overlap in the 3-D mode.

Why does a converged stereogram focus create a 2-D image?
A stereogram converged focus produces a 2-D image because two eyes produce different opposite angled views that overlap each other at corresponding points along the visual pathway, thus, a 2-D image.

What mental processes are involved to gain the stereogram effect?
The only process necessary to gain the 3-D mode is the mental attitude needed to gain a parallel or cross-eyed focus. Once acquired, the neuron and synapse changes become easier with each successful shift.

Is the brain working to solve the puzzle of matching up the dots/design from the two eyes in order to pull out the depth perception mode?
The eyes are an extension of the brain, but there is "no" puzzle for the brain to solve regarding stereogram 3-D viewing. The solution is relaxation, mental thought to parallel or cross-eye focus, and patience to allow the visual signals to settle separately into each of the seven different visual field layers.

How many vertical rows does the stereogram have in the 2-D mode versus the 3-D mode?
Mr. Q stereogram 2-D viewing has 5 vertical and 7 horizontal rows. The 3-D focus has 6 vertical rows and 7 horizontal rows on four different depth layers.

When attempting a parallel or cross-eyed focus, what is necessary before creating the shift to a 3-D mode?
Before acquiring the 3-D shift, the head must be held stationary with an absolutely steady parallel focus.

How does a stereogram parallel focus create a 3-D image?
A stereogram parallel focus produces a 3-D image by shifting the left eye view to the left and the right eye view to the right at noncorresponding points. Each of the seven visual paths maintain their own individual pathway, angles and depths.

Once the 3-D image comes into focus, why can the eyes scan and move all around without reverting back to a 2-D mode?
The eyes can scan the 3-D image as long as the head or stereogram angle remains unchanged. Once the stereogram picture or the head is tilted up, down, left, right and takes that particular angle view out of its necessary boundary then the 3-D mode downshifts back to the 2-D mode.

How does the ghostly mystical row six come into play in the 3-D observation?
2-D stereogram has five vertical rows. 3-D stereogram observation has six rows due to the eye's parallel focus which moves the left eye's visual field span to the left and the right eye's visual field span to the right at noncorresponding points along the visual pathway. Thus, the parallel shift creates the sixth vertical row.

With 3-D stereograms are there always five/six vertical columns?
The Mr. Q 5/6 vertical columns equal the visual field span of each eye which actually are not columns. Vertical columns were used for the diagram. This stereogram happened to have 5 shark rows but it could be 6, 7, or 10.

How does one know the visual fields are layered?
Stereogram parallel focus using red and white dots placed above the different shark columns, then closing one eye then the other produces the layered visual fields and shows which layer is foreground or background.

Can the layered foreground or background image be reversed in 3-D mode?
Yes, the background or foreground left or right angle visual fields can be reversed by tilting the stereogram angle. The reversal is not apparent to the observer but is known to occur due to experiements with the red/white dots. Instead of the dots being red/white they become white/red layered when the stereogram angle is changed.

What are the different visual field pathways?
The visual field pathways are: RE-RVF, LE-RVF, LE-FOVEA, LE & RE VISUAL AXIS FOVEA, RE-FOVEA, RE-LVF, LE-LVF.

Do the seven visual field pathways contain the whole right and left visual field signals of each eye? Yes, each visual field pathway contains the entire visual field signals. The only difference between the different pathways are the individual angles of the visual signals.

Do the visual pathways ever share information?
Information between visual pathways do not appear to be shared with different visual pathways. But all different angled visual signals merge as one at the interference pattern multistage integration of all visual signals when the sensation of sight occurs.

How can each visual pathway function like a two-way street with incoming and outgoing visual signals?
One speculation is that each visual pathway can handle both incoming and outgoing signals simultaneously because the signals are different angled signals and never interfere with each other. A hologram can hold many different pictures never to interfere with each other all due to each different angles.

How are stereogram parallel focus refracted fovea signals different from the other visual field signals?
Refracted fovea signals send each eye's whole left and right angle views converging to that eye's fovea. The left and right visual field signals never separate. Those signals then increase to 35% more area in the visual cortex, cross the corpus callosum into the opposite hemisphere, follow the optic path to exit the opposite eye's opposite visual fields.

What clue surfaced within microscopic vision showing an opposite direction of the fovea functions?
The clue microscopic vision set forth regarding the fovea signals was that both left and right visual fields signals converge to a focus point at the optic axis line going through the cornea center and the visual axis line passing through the lens center. The optic axis line makes an angle of about five degrees with the visual axis. This area has no curvature, therefore, no refraction of visual signals. The optic/visual axis signals become coherent as they squeeze through the cornea and lens center then diverge outward to a larger fovea area. These signals remain upright never refracting. The fovea signals continue to increase to 35% in size at the visual cortex. These fovea optic/visual axis signals then cross the corpus callosum into the opposite hemispheres and exit diverging into the opposite eye's optic/visual axis fields.

Why with a parallel focus does the image of awareness appear closer and more acute?
Awareness focused at a specific object sends those visual signals converging at the optic/visual axis cornea and lens exact centers and become coherent. Those signals then increase in size diverging to the fovea and further increase 35 % in size at the visual cortex for the most acute visual acuity.

STEREOGRAM CROSS-EYED FOCUS QUESTIONS & ANSWERS

What direction is taken to forge links that will explain how parallel and cross-eyed visual variations reverse the background and foreground?
Knowing the two different diagram results, deductive reasoning is one direction to forge links.

What reverses the background to become the foreground using a stereogram cross-eyed focus?
A cross-eyed stereogram focus alters the quantity of the left and right visual field signals to each eye. The left eye receives a greater span of LE-LVF signals with a decreased span of LE-RVF signals. And the right eye receives more RE-RVF signals with a decreased span of RE-LVF signals. The cross-eyed visual field signals balances are opposite parallel focus visual field signal balances. The parallel focus image observed has the sharks chasing Mr. Q. and cross-eyed focus has Mr. Q chasing the sharks.

How does the visual fields balance change which visual field layer is the dominant layer?
The visual field balance reverses the dominant visual field layer but it is the angle of the cross-eyed focus that creates the change.


For the individuals who could not master a stereogram parallel or cross-eyed focus by training the eye muscles, you can experience the parallel and cross-eyed modes by using a stereoscope.


Next: Stereoscope Vision


© Copyright Mary J. Johnston
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Contact info:
Mary J. Johnston
Web: www.visualexperiments.org
Email: mjohnston218@yahoo.com