Negative Afterimage
and Other Visual Experiments

Eye-Brain Holographic Model

To know what is possible tomorrow,
you must step outside of what is possible today.

--Albert Einstein

Who knows what form the forward momentum of life will take
in the time ahead or what use it will make of our anguished searching?
The most that any one of us can seem to do is to fashion something --
an object or ourselves -- and drop it into the confusion,
make an offering of it, so to speak, to the life force.

--Ernest Becker, The Denial of Death


British scientist Dennis Gabor invented holography in 1947 and his motivation to invent holography was to improve the electron microscope. Gabor's work continued into the 1950s, but neither the X-ray nor electron-wave holography was successful, and interest in holography declined. The early 1960s brought the greatest holography discovery when Emmett N. Leith and Juris Upatnieks introduced the new techniques, utilizing the newly developed laser with its vast output of coherent light.

The properties' holograms and the images they produce is the dramatic 3-dimensional realism. The 3-D holographic effect comes from receiving the reflected light image from two different angles or reference points. A second property of the hologram is that any fragment of the hologram (film) can regenerate the whole image although smaller in size. Regeneration is possible because each point on the object sends its reflected light waves to each portion of the film.

Holograms can be made in many ways, with or without lenses. The holographic process using lenses in the making of todays holograms will be used for comparison. The laser box (A) sends out a coherent laser beam (B), which is split by a beam splitter (C) into two different light beams called the object beam (D1) and the reference beam (D2). The object beam (D1) strikes the lens (E1), spreads to a mirror (F1), and is directed to the object (G), then reflects off the object to the film (H), also called a hologram.

The reference beam (D2) reflects off a mirror (F2) to a lens (E2), and spreads directly to the film (H). When the two beams hit the film from different angles, they cause the phenomenon called interference (I).

The film is then chemically developed much like normal photographic processing. The holographic image reconstruction is accomplished by passing coherent light (a), a duplicate of the reference beam, through the developed film or hologram (b). The coherent incident beam interacts with the developed film and projects a new wave (c), a 3-D replica (d) of the original wave striking the film during its formation, suspended in space in the same location, in relation to the hologram, that the original object occupied.

Hologram and Projection

BINOCULAR EYE-BRAIN HOLOGRAPHIC MODEL

Eye-Brain Holographic Model Incoming Waves

Eye-Brain Holographic Model Outgoing Energy

The external object acts as a mirror (A). Incoherent light reflects off the external object and encodes the wavelength signals for color and image form. Light carrying form and color signals parallel the "photographic film" (B) used in holography.

Reflected light becomes partially coherent and goes to both eyes, which act as "beam splitters #1" (C1 & 2) creating two separate "object/reference beams" (D1 & 2) with one beam acting as the reference beam for the opposite object beam.

Cornea and lens refract peripheral signals, which remain partially coherent, to the opposite retinas side, causing upside down and backward signals to a retina focus point. Light along the optic axis passes unrefracted through the cornea's stromas, which act as "polarizing filters #1" (E 1 & 2). Visual axis light passes unrefracted through the exact center of the lenses and lens mass, which also act as "lens #1" (F 1 & 2), as well as a "polarizing filter #2" (F 1 & 2).Both optic and visual axis signals began to converge on the path through the vitreous humor. The vitreous humors function as "polarizing filter #3" (G 1 & 2) and continue to keep visual axis energy coherent. The aqueous humor, lens mass, and vitreous humor operate as an energy slowing agent (H 1 & 2). All signals converge to a focus point on the fovea/macula areas.

Both retinas have a triple function. First, light passes to the retina's rear and enters the rod and cone tips where chemical and electrical reactions occur as well as in the synaptic crossings from rods and cones to bipolar cells to ganglion cells. The chemical and electrical aspects parallel a "developer" (I 1 & 2) and make a negative of the film (B).

Second, both retina's rods, cones, and bipolar cells perform as "lenses # 2" (J 1 & 2), and converge signals for the left and right visual field areas into less ganglion cell area. The fovea/macula area has single line pathways with no convergence.

Third, the retinas function as "beam splitters #2" (K 1 & 2) which split each retina's energy into three separate beams, each acting as a reference/object beam for the opposite retina beams.

The thalami act as "beam splitters #3" (L 1 & 2), and separate the incoming signals from each retina for shape and movement, color and form, and movement. The energy signals then enter the primary cortex V1 and V2 areas, which function as "beam splitters #4" (M 1 & 2), and separate fragmented visual signals, such as, ear, eyes, nose, mouth & etc. The fovea's visual cortex cells act as "lenses #3" (N 1 & 2), and diverge its light beam to 35% more area.

The corpus callosum "bridge" (O) crosses cortex layers 2, 3, and 4 from each hemisphere into the opposite hemisphere. The corpus bridge also acts as an impulse speed regulator due to the alternating fat and protein layers called "myelin" that covers those neuron axons. Heavy myelinated commissural fibers speed nerve impulses by a factor of 10 and cause the impulse layered effect. "Lenses #3" (N 1 & 2) converge negative fovea light on its outward path to V1 and V2. Primary cortex V1 & V2 beam splitters #4 (M 1 & 2) now function, opposite yet complementary as "beam convergers #4" (M 1 & 2). The thalami beam splitters # 4 also become "beam convergers #3 (L 1 & 2) and bring together the negative energy to 8% optic nerve fibers traveling back to the retina. Retina "beam convergers #2" (K 1 & 2) now marry the three divided beams as "lenses #2" (J 1 & 2) diverge the left and right visual field signals into more retina cell areas. The fovea signals converge into less retina area.

Outgoing negative light then passes back through the "vitreous polarizing filters # 3" (G 1 & 2), "lens polarizing filters #2" (F 1 & 2), and the "stroma polarizing filters #1" (E 1 & 2) and keeps light coherent. The peripheral visual fields light exits the eyes and reverse refracts, uprighting all image signals. Light exits the eye "beam convergers #1" (C 1 & 2) as the two beams and travel back to its source. The two negative object beams strike the original extenal object's positive energy in multi-layered impulse stages of visual field and fragment layers.

Exiting negative energy working in an opposite but complementary direction to incoming positive energy now shows the RE-RVF signals go into the LE-LVF areas, which exit the eye first. The LE-RVF signals go into the RE-LVF area and exits the eye second.

The two exiting negative object/reference beams cause "interference" (A) where interaction occurs with the original positive external object. A new wave is generated, which creates the positive afterimage sight sensation to the mind -- a HOLOGRAM!.

When a distant wall is used as the backdrop, interference occurs when exiting negative energy interacts with the wall backdrop energy, but remains a negative afterimage observation. Plus, six energy layers present to the observer the perception of image "solidity" versus one or two layers perceived as image "transparency."

MONOCULAR MICROSCOPIC HOLOGRAPHIC MODEL

X-ray and electron microscopy applications had been examined anew, but the prospects have been poor. With further study and analyzation of the eye-brain holographic model, a different direction in holography, maybe new understanding and perceptions of holography can improve the new superscopes of today as we take a brief look at microscopes.

Monocular Microscopic Holographic Model - Incoming

Monocular Microscopic Holographic Model - Outgoing


Next: Microscopes


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Mary J. Johnston
Web: www.visualexperiments.org
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